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Lateral consonant

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Laterals are “L”-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.Bạn đang xem: Approximant là gì

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Manners of articulation Obstruent

Most commonly the tip of the tongue makes contact with the upper teeth (see dental consonant) or the upper gum (the alveolar ridge) just behind the teeth (see alveolar consonant). The most common laterals are approximants và belong to lớn the class of liquids.

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2 các mục of laterals

Laterals in various languages

English has one lateral phoneme: the lateral approximant /l/, which in many accents has two allophones. One, found before vowels as in lady or fly, is called clear l, pronounced as the alveolar lateral approximant with a “neutral” position of the toàn thân of the tongue. The other variant, so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally, as in bold or tell, is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape with its back part raised, which gives the sound a – or -like resonance. In some languages, lượt thích Albanian, those two sounds are different phonemes. East Slavic languages contrast & but vì not have a plain .

In many British accents (e.g. London English), dark may undergo vocalization through the reduction and loss of tương tác between the tip of the tongue the alveolar ridge, becoming a rounded back vowel or glide. This process turns tell into something lượt thích . A similar process happened in Brazilian Portuguese và in Old French, resulting in , whence Modern French sauce as compared with Spanish salsa. Also in Polish historical (spelled ł ) has become even word-initially or between vowels.

In central and Venice dialects of Vèneto intervocalic /l/ has turned into a semivocalic , so that the written word la bala is pronounced .

Nearly all languages with such lateral obstruents also have the approximant. However, Tlingit is an exception, with /tɬ, tɬʰ, tɬ’, ɬ, ɬ’/ but no /l/.

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Tibetan has a voiceless lateral approximant, usually romanized as lh, as in the name Lhasa.

Pashto has retroflex lateral flap.

A large number of lateral click consonants, 17, occur in !Xóõ.

List of laterals






Other symbols

The symbol for the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative forms the basis for the occasional ad hoc symbols for other voiceless lateral fricatives: retroflex, palatal, velar (the latter two only known from affricates):

The symbol for the alveolar lateral flap is the basis for the expected symbol for the retroflex lateral flap:

Such symbols are rare, but are becoming more common now that font-editing software has become accessible. Note however that since they are not sanctioned by the IPA, there are no Unicode values for them.

Xem thêm: Thông Tin Chi Tiết Tàu Cao Tốc Vũng Tàu Đi Côn Đảo, Tàu Cao Tốc Côn Đảo Express


See also



This table contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. Where symbols appear in pairs, the one lớn the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged lớn be impossible.

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