chink la gi

An angry caricatured Chinese male face with spiny facial hair and a snake-like tail. Beneath is a five-line poem which begins, "He's a Yellow Peril Chink of surprising versatility."
A racist postcard by Fred C. Lounsbury, promoting the idea of the Yellow Peril (1907)

Chink[1] is an English-language ethnic slur usually referring vĩ đại a person of Chinese descent,[2] but against people of East Asian, North Asian, Southeast Asian appearance. The use of the term describing eyes with epicanthic fold ("Asiatic eyes") is considered extremely offensive and is regarded racist by many.[3][4]

Etymology[edit]

Various dictionaries provide different etymologies of the word chink; for example, that it originated from the Chinese courtesy ching-ching,[5] that it evolved from the word China,[6] or that it was an alteration of Qing (Ch'ing), as in the Qing dynasty.[7]

Bạn đang xem: chink la gi

Another possible origin is that chink evolved from the word for Trung Quốc in an Indo-Iranian language, ultimately deriving from the name of the Qing dynasty. That word is now pronounced similarly in various Indo-European languages.[8]

History[edit]

A Chinese laborer loads salmon carcasses into an Iron Chink machine. A pile of salmon carcasses covers the floor.
The Iron Chink, a machine that guts and cleans salmon for canning,[9] alongside a Chinese fishplant worker, was marketed as a replacement for fish-butchers, who were primarily Chinese immigrants.

The first recorded use of the word chink is from approximately 1880.[10] As far as is ascertainable, its adjective size, chinky, first appeared in print in 1878.[11]

Around the turn of the 20th century, many white Americans in the Northern United States perceived Chinese immigration as a threat vĩ đại their living standards. However, Chinese workers were still desired in the Western United States due vĩ đại persistent labor shortages. Chinese butcher crews were held in such high esteem that when Edmund A. Smith patented his mechanized fish-butchering machine in 1905, he named it the Iron Chink[12][13] which is seen by some as symbolic of anti-Chinese racism during the era.[14][15] Usage of the word continued, such as with the story "The Chink and the Child", by Thomas Burke, which was later adapted vĩ đại film by D. W. Griffith. Griffith altered the story vĩ đại be more racially sensitive and renamed it Broken Blossoms.

Although chink refers vĩ đại those appearing vĩ đại be of Chinese descent, the term has also been directed towards people of other East and Southeast Asian ethnicities. Literature and film about the Vietnam war contain examples of this usage, including the film Platoon (1986) and the play Sticks and Bones (1971, also later filmed).[16][17]

Controversy[edit]

Australia[edit]

The terms Chinaman and chink became intertwined, as some Australians used both with hostile intent when referring vĩ đại members of the country's Chinese population, which had swelled significantly during the Gold Rush era of the 1850s and 1860s.[18]

Assaults on Chinese miners and racially motivated riots and public disturbances were not infrequent occurrences in Australia's mining districts in the second half of the 19th century. There was some resentment, too, of the fact that Chinese miners and laborers tended vĩ đại send their earnings back trang chính vĩ đại their families in Trung Quốc rather than vãn spending them in nước Australia and supporting the local economy.

In the popular Sydney Bulletin magazine in 1887, one author wrote: "No nigger, no chink, no lascar, no kanaka (laborer from the South Pacific islands), no purveyor of cheap labour, is an Australian."[10] Eventually, since-repealed federal government legislation was passed vĩ đại restrict non-white immigration and thus protect the jobs of Anglo-Celtic Australian workers from "undesirable" competition.

Canada[edit]

On July 19, 2020, a man in Calgary was arrested after spitting on a woman of Asian descent and shouting "stupid chink" at her. The man, identified as Justin Riaz Williams, was a basketball manager at the University of Calgary who was fired from his job before the COVID-19 pandemic after staff found screenshots of him using homophobic and racial slurs on his phone.[19] Jessica Lau, the victim, uploaded the video clip on her Instagram tài khoản and told Global News, "I've never experienced any kind of racism ... this is a thing that's happening in the world right now." The Calgary Police said that Williams was taken into custody and charged with three counts of assault and one count of possession of a weapon dangerous vĩ đại the public.[20]

India[edit]

In India, the ethnic slur chinki (or chinky) is frequently directed against people with East Asian features, including people from Northeast India, and Nepal,[21] who are often mistaken for Chinese, despite being closer vĩ đại Tibetans and the Burmese than vãn vĩ đại Han Chinese peoples.[22]

In 2012, the Indian Ministry of trang chủ Affairs recognized use of the term "chinki" vĩ đại refer vĩ đại a thành viên of the Scheduled Tribes (especially in the North-East) as a criminal offense under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act with a penalty of up vĩ đại five years in jail. The Ministry further warned that they would very seriously review any failure of the police vĩ đại enforce this interpretation of the Act.[23]

United Kingdom[edit]

Chinky: Strongest language, highly unacceptable without strong contextualisation. Seen as derogatory vĩ đại Chinese people. More mixed views regarding use of the term vĩ đại mean ‘Chinese takeaway’.

— Broadcasting regulator Ofcom, Attitudes vĩ đại potentially offensive language and gestures on TV and radio (2016)[24]

Chinky (or chinky chonky[25]) is a slur for a Chinese takeaway restaurant or Chinese food and Chinese people.[26] In parts of northern England known as a chinkies, always in the plural.[citation needed]

The 1969 top 3 UK hit single for Blue Mink, "Melting Pot", has the lyric: "take a pinch of white man/Wrap him up in Black skin. [...] Mixed with yellow Chinkees. You know you lump it all together/And you got a recipe for a get-along scene/Oh what a beautiful dream/If it could only come true".[27] The usage of the slur was and still is heavily overlooked due vĩ đại the tuy nhiên being viewed as “racially inclusive”.

Xem thêm: hoắc tổng tôi muốn từ hôn full

In 1999, an exam given vĩ đại students in Scotland was criticized for containing a passage that students were told vĩ đại interpret containing the word chinky. This exam was taken by students all over Scotland, and Chinese groups expressed offence at the use of this passage. The examinations body toàn thân apologized, calling the passage's inclusion "an error of judgement."[28]

In 2002, the Broadcasting Standards Commission, after a complaint about the Đài truyền hình BBC One programme The Vicar of Dibley, held that when used as the name of a type of restaurant or meal, rather than vãn as an adjective applied vĩ đại a person or group of people, the word still carries extreme racist connotation which causes offence particularly vĩ đại those of East Asian origin.[29]

In 2004, the commission's counterpart, the Radio Authority, apologised for the offence caused by an incident where a DJ on Heart 106.2 used the term.[30]

In a 2005 document commissioned by Ofcom titled "Language and Sexual Imagery in Broadcasting: A Contextual Investigation"[31] their definition of chink was "a term of racial offence/abuse. However, this is polarising. Older and mainly white groups tend vĩ đại think this is not usually used in an abusive way—e.g., let's go vĩ đại the Chinky—which is not seen as offensive by those who aren't of East Asian origin; Chinky usually refers vĩ đại food not a culture or race however, younger people, East Asians, particularly people of Chinese origin and other non-white ethnic minorities believe the word 'Chinky, Chinkies or Chinkie' vĩ đại be as insulting as 'paki' or 'nigger'."

In 2006, after several campaigns by the Scottish Executive, more people in Scotland now acknowledge that this name is indirectly racist.[32] As of năm 2016, British broadcasting regulator Ofcom considers the word vĩ đại be "Strongest language, highly unacceptable without strong contextualisation. Seen as derogatory vĩ đại Chinese people. More mixed views regarding use of the term vĩ đại mean 'Chinese takeaway'".

In năm trước, the term gained renewed attention after a recording emerged of UKIP candidate Kerry Smith referring vĩ đại a woman of Chinese background as a "chinky bird".[33]

United States[edit]

The Pekin Community High School District 303 teams in Pekin, Illinois were officially known as the "Pekin Chinks" until 1981, when the school administration changed the name vĩ đại the "Pekin Dragons". The sự kiện received national attention.[34][35]

During early 2000, University of California, Davis experienced a string of racial incidents and crimes between Asian and white students, mostly among fraternities. Several incidents included "chink" and other racial epithets being shouted among groups, including the slurs being used during a robbery and assault on an Asian fraternity by 15 white males. The incidents motivated a school-wide review and protest vĩ đại get professional conflict resolution and culturally sensitive mediators.[36]

Sarah Silverman appeared on Late Night with Conan O'Brien in 2001, stirring up controversy when the word chink was used without the usual bleep appearing over ethnic slurs on network television. The controversy led Asian activist and community leader Guy Aoki vĩ đại appear on the talk show Politically Incorrect along with Sarah Silverman. Guy Aoki alleged that Silverman did not believe that the term was offensive.[37]

New York City radio station Hot 97 was criticized for airing the "Tsunami Song". Referring vĩ đại the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, in which over an estimated 200,000 people died, the tuy nhiên used the phrase "screaming chinks" along with other offensive lyrics. The radio station fired a co-host and producer, and indefinitely suspended radio personality Miss Jones, who was later reinstated. Members of the Asian American community said Miss Jones' reinstatement condoned hate speech.[38]

A Philadelphia eatery, Chink's Steaks, created controversy,[when?] with articles appearing in the Philadelphia Daily News and other newspapers. The restaurant was asked by Asian community groups[39] vĩ đại change the name. The restaurant was named after the original Jewish-American owner's nickname, "Chink", derived from the ethnic slur due vĩ đại his "slanty eyes".[40] The restaurant was renamed Joe's in 2013.[41][42][43][44][45]

In February 2012, ESPN fired one employee and suspended another for using the headline "Chink in the Armor" in reference vĩ đại Jeremy Lin, an American basketball player of Taiwanese and Chinese descent.[46][47] While the word chink also refers vĩ đại a crack or fissure and chink in the armor is an idiom and common sports cliché, referring vĩ đại a vulnerability,[48] the "apparently intentional" double entendre of its use in reference vĩ đại an Asian athlete was viewed as offensive.[49]

In September 2019, after it was announced that Shane Gillis would be joining Saturday Night Live as a featured cast thành viên, clips from Gillis' podcast in 2018 resurfaced, in which Gillis made anti-Asian jokes, including using the word "chink". The revelation sparked public outcry, with several outlets noting the disconnect of hiring Gillis along with Bowen Yang, the show's first Chinese American cast thành viên.[50][51] After Gillis issued what was characterized as a non-apology apology,[52][53] a spokesperson for Lorne Michaels announced Gillis would be let go prior vĩ đại his first episode due vĩ đại the controversy.[51]

Xem thêm: cha của cục cưng là tổng tài

In May 2021, Tony Hinchcliffe was videotaped insulting Peng Dang, an Asian American comedian who had introduced Hinchcliffe after performing the previous phối at a comedy club in Austin, Texas, by referring vĩ đại Dang as a "filthy little fucking chink".[54] Dang posted the video clip on Twitter, resulting in heavy backlash against Hinchliffe, who was subsequently dropped by his agency and removed from several scheduled shows.[55]

See also[edit]

Look up Chink in Wiktionary, the không tính phí dictionary.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Also chinky, chinkie, chinki, chinker, chinka, or chinkapoo
  2. ^ "Chink | Definition of chink by Merriam-Webster". Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  3. ^ Hsu, Huan (21 February 2012). "No More Chinks in the Armor". Slate. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  4. ^ McNeal, Greg (18 February 2012). "ESPN Uses 'Chink in the Armor' Line Twice UPDATE- ESPN Fires One Employee Suspends Another". Forbes. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  5. ^ Cassell's Dictionary of Slang. Orion Publishing Group. November 2005. ISBN 978-0304366361.
  6. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Slang. Oxford University Press. December 2003. ISBN 978-0198607632.
  7. ^ 21st Century Dictionary of Slang. Random House, Inc. 1 January 1994. ISBN 978-0-440-21551-6.
  8. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Slang. Oxford University Press. December 2003. ISBN 978-0-19-860763-2.
  9. ^ "Automated salmon cleaning machine developed in Seattle in 1903". HistoryLink.org. 1 January 2000. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  10. ^ a b Hughes, Geoffrey. An Encyclopedia of Swearing. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2006.
  11. ^ Tom Dalzell; Terry Victor, eds. (12 May 2005). New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21258-8.
  12. ^ Jo Scott B, "Smith's Iron Chink – One Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish Butcher", British Columbia History, 38 (2): 21–22, archived from the original on 23 October 2007
  13. ^ Philip B. C. Jones. "Revolution on a Dare; Edmund A. Smith and His Famous Fish-butchering Machine" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011. The myth arose that Edmund Smith had designed the machine specifically vĩ đại fire Chinese workers
  14. ^ Wing, Avra (14 January 2005). "Acts of Exclusion". AsianWeek. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006.
  15. ^ "HistoryLink.org- the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History". Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  16. ^ http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Platoon.html Archived 30 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 31 March 2007.[verification needed]
  17. ^ New York Times, 26 April 1971, p. 10.[verification needed]
  18. ^ Yu, Ouyang (1993). "All the Lower Orders: Representations of the Chinese Cooks, Market Gardeners and Other Lower-Class People in Australian Literature from 1888 vĩ đại 1988". Kunapipi. 15 (3). Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  19. ^ Cleary, Tom (20 July 2020). "Justin Williams: Calgary Man Spit on Asian Woman, Called Her Racist Slur, Cops Say". heavy. Archived from the original on đôi mươi July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  20. ^ Kaufmann, Bill. "More charges against man who allegedly hurled racial insults, spat on victims". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on 22 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Northeast students question 'racism' in India". CNN-IBN. 6 June 2009. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  22. ^ "Indians Protest, Saying a Death Was Tied vĩ đại Bias". The Thủ đô New York Times. 1 February năm trước. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  23. ^ Sharma, Aman (3 June 2012). "North-East racial slur could get you jailed for five years". India Today. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  24. ^ "Attitudes vĩ đại potentially offensive language and gestures on TV and radio, Quick Reference Guide" (PDF). ofcom.org.uk. Ipsos MORI. September năm 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October năm 2016.
  25. ^ Ray Puxley (2004). Britslang: An Uncensored A-Z of the People's Language, Including Rhyming Slang. Robson. p. 98. ISBN 1-86105-728-8.
  26. ^ "TV's most offensive words". The Guardian. 21 November 2005.
  27. ^ "Melting Pot Lyrics". metrolyrics.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  28. ^ "Chinese 'slur' wins apology". BBC News. 29 June 1999. Archived from the original on 9 March 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
  29. ^ "The Vicar Of Dibley" (PDF). The Bulletin. Broadcasting Standards Commission. 56 (56): 19. 25 July 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2004.
  30. ^ "Radio Authority Quarterly Complaints Bulletin: April – June 2001" (PDF). Radio Authority. June 2001. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2004.
  31. ^ The Fuse Group (September 2005). "Language and Sexual Imagery in Broadcasting: A Contextual Investigation" (PDF). Ofcom.
  32. ^ One Scotland Many Cultures 2005/2006 — Waves 6 and 7 Campaign Evaluation (PDF). 13 September 2006. ISBN 0-7559-6242-7. ISSN 0950-2254. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August năm 2016.
  33. ^ "Farage defends 'rough diamond' former UKIP candidate". BBC News. 19 December năm trước.
  34. ^ "1981: The Pekin Chinks high school team becomes the Pekin Dragons". Chinese-American Museum of Chicago. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  35. ^ Stainbrook, Michael (26 September 2014). "The hunt for 'Red' alternatives". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  36. ^ Banerjee, Neela (16 February 2001). "Hate Crimes Galvanize U.C. Davis Students". Asianweek.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  37. ^ "ABC's Politically Incorrect Tackles Comedian's 'Chink' Joke". AsianWeek. 24 August 2000. Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  38. ^ Fang, Jennifer; Fujikawa, James (16 February 2005). "'Tsunami Song' Host Miss Jones Returns". Yellowworld.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  39. ^ "The OCA approves Chink's Steaks resolution". Organization of Chinese Americans – Greater Philadelphia Chapter. January 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2007.[dead link]
  40. ^ "Only 21, she's leading steak-shop fight". The Asian American Journalists Association – Philadelphia. 1 April 2004. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 22 March 2007.
  41. ^ "Chink's Steaks changing its name". 28 March 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  42. ^ "Chink's Steaks Sign No Longer Hanging In Northeast Philadelphia « CBS Philly". April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  43. ^ "Joe's Steaks + Soda Shop". Archived from the original on 30 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  44. ^ "Take that, racists: Eat at Joe's (formerly Chink's Steaks)". Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  45. ^ "Chink's Steaks Is Now Joe's Steaks + Soda Shop – Foobooz". 28 March 2013. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  46. ^ Boren, Cindy (19 February 2012). "ESPN fires employee for offensive Jeremy Lin headline; "SNL" weighs in". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on đôi mươi February 2012.
  47. ^ Collins, Scott (19 February 2012). "Jeremy Lin and ESPN: Network rushes vĩ đại quell furor over 'chink' comments". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012.
  48. ^ "chink in one's armor". Dictionary.com. Houghton Mifflin Company. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  49. ^ Dwyer, Kelly (18 February 2012). "Apparently intentional, ESPN's since-deleted headline about Jeremy Lin was distressing". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012.
  50. ^ * Sims, David (13 September 2019). "'Saturday Night Live' Made a Mistake Hiring Shane Gillis". The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
    • Ho, Vivian (13 September 2019). "SNL adds first Asian cast thành viên while another is under fire over anti-Asian slur". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
    • "New 'SNL' cast thành viên Shane Gillis responds after video clip of racist slur resurfaces". Los Angeles Times. 12 September 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
    • Wright, Megh (13 September 2019). "New SNL Hire Shane Gillis Has a History of Racist and Homophobic Remarks". Vulture. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
    • Thorne, Will; Low, Elaine (13 September 2019). "New 'SNL' Cast Member Shane Gillis Uses Racist, Sexist, Homophobic Remarks in Resurfaced Material". Variety. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  51. ^ a b Lewis, Sophie (13 September 2019). "New "SNL" cast thành viên Shane Gillis exposed in videos using racist and homophobic slurs". CBS News. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  52. ^ Abad-Santos, Alex (13 September 2019). "Racist jokes by new SNL cast thành viên Shane Gillis prompt backlash — and a non-apology about "risks"". Vox. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  53. ^ Herreria, Carla (13 September 2019). "New 'SNL' Cast Member Spews Racist Asian Jokes, Slur In Resurfaced Video". HuffPost. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  54. ^ "Tony Hinchcliffe goes on racist rant after being introduced by Asian-American comedian". The Daily Dot. 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  55. ^ "Comedian Tony Hinchcliffe dropped by WME and Joe Rogan gigs after slur against Chinese comedian: reports". New York Daily News. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.

Sources[edit]

  • Foster, Harry. A Beachcomber in the Orient. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1930.